CETC Solar Energy, passion for solar
Solar Energy is energy radiated from the sun, mainly in the form of heat and light. It is required for photosynthesis and is also harnessed as a renewable energy source, e.g. in photovoltaics (PV) to provide electricity or as solar thermal energy for heating and cooling systems. Solar energy can be used in homes, businesses, and industry as well as in distributed generation applications, such as street lighting or for back-up electricity generation. On a bright, sunny day, the sun provides approximately 1,000 watts of energy per square meter of the planet's surface, and if we could collect all of that energy we could easily power our homes and offices for free. [back]
1. Solar PV or solar hot water systems reduce, or can completely eliminate, the amount of electricity you have to purchase from your utility or electric service provider to power your home. Using solar power helps reduce our energy reliance on fossil fuels.
2. The electricity generated by your solar power system is clean, renewable and reliable. It will help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases – a major contributor to global climate change.
3. Solar PV or solar hot water systems save you money on your electricity or natural gas bill and act as a hedge against future price increases. Solar power systems can provide owners with fixed energy costs.
4. A growing solar industry provides local jobs and economic development opportunities for states and regions.
5. Using solar PV power helps your community by reducing electricity demand and providing additional electricity for the grid when you generate more than you use during the day, when the demand is highest. [back]
Solar energy systems have very little impact on the environment, making them one of the cleanest power-generating technologies available today. While they are converting the sun’s rays into electricity or hot fluids, they produce no air pollution, hazardous waste, or noise. The more electricity and heat that we convert from the sun’s rays decreases our reliance and dependence on fossil fuels and on imported sources of energy. Finally, solar energy can be an effective economic development driver. [back]
Photovoltaic (PV) power systems convert sunlight directly into electricity. A residential PV power system enables a homeowner to generate some or all of their daily electrical energy demand on their own roof, exchanging daytime excess power for future energy needs (i.e. night time usage). The house remains connected to the electric utility at all times, so any power needed above what the solar system can produce is simply drawn from the electric utility. Solar energy technologies can plan an important role in providing an alternative source of electricity, energy, and back-up power for homes, offices, commercial and industrial buildings. It can relieve demand pressures for electricity off from the grid during peak usage, which usually correlates to peak daylight, especially in the warmer months when demand for air conditioning can sky rocket.
Solar energy can also play an important role in lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by replacing coal-powered energy sources with clean, renewable solar PV technologies. These GHG emissions reductions will in turn improve air quality and lessen the harmful impacts that contribute to climate change.
Those who are putting solar on their homes, businesses or other buildings are making a difference. [back]
Sunlight is the world’s largest energy source and for thousands of years, it has been human civilization's chief source of light and heat. Today, solar energy technologies are being developed and refined to more effectively use the sun’s power for producing electricity (photovoltaics), as well as steam and hot water for industrial processes (solar thermal technologies). In less than an hour, the U.S. receives more energy in the form of sunlight than it does from the fossil fuels it burns in a year.
The roots of PV energy grew out of experiments done over 150 years ago by the French physicist Antoine-Cesar Becquerel in 1839. He observed that he could produce an electric current by shining light on an electrolytic cell composed on an electrolyte and two electrodes. The German scientist Heinrich Hertz and other observed the PV effect – the conversion of light into electricity – in solids during the 1870’s, and the first primitive PV cells were built in the 1800s, with about 1-2 percent efficiencies. In 1954, Bell Labs in the U.S. introduced the first solar photovoltaic device that produced a useful amount of electricity, and by the late 1950s solar cells were being used in small-scale scientific and commercial applications, especially for the U.S. space program.
Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a technology in which light is converted into electricity using photovoltaic modules that have no moving parts, operate quietly without emissions, and are capable on long-term use with minimal maintenance. Crystalline silicon, the same material commonly used by the semiconductor industry, is the material used in 94 % of all PV modules today. PV modules generate direct current (DC) electricity. For residential use, the current is fed through an inverter to produce alternating current (AC) that can be used to power the home’s appliances. The main barrier to widespread use of this technology is the initial high equipment cost. PV technology was been advancing over the last few decades and prices have steadily declined.
Photovoltaics is a fast growing market: The Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of PV installations was 41% between 2000 to 2015. Concerning PV module production in 2015, China hold the lead with a share of 71%, followed by Rest of Asia-Pacific & Central Asia (ROAP/CA) with 14%. Europe contributed with a share of 5% (was 6% in 2014); USA/CAN contributed 3%. In 2015, Europe's contribution to the total cumulative PV installations amounted to 40% (compared to 48% in 2014). In contrast, installations in China accounted for 21% (compared to 17% in 2014). Si-wafer based PV technology accounted for about 93% of the total production in 2015. The share of multi-crystalline technology is now about 69% of total production. In 2015, the market share of all thin film technologies amounted to about 7% of the total annual production.
The record lab cell efficiency is 25.6% for mono-crystalline and 20.8% for multi-crystalline silicon wafer-based technology. The highest lab efficiency in thin film technology is 21.0% for CdTe and 20.5% for CIGS solar cells. In the last 10 years, the efficiency of average commercial wafer-based silicon modules increased from about 12% to 17% (Super-mono 21%). At the same time, CdTe module efficiency increased from 9% to 16%. In the laboratory, best performing modules are based on monocrystalline silicon with about 23% efficiency. Record efficiencies demonstrate the potential for further efficiency increases at the production level. In the laboratory, high concentration multi-junction solar cells achieve an efficiency of up to 46.0% today. With concentrator technology, module efficiencies of up to 38.9% have been reached.
Material usage for silicon cells has been reduced significantly during the last 10 years from around 16g/Wp to less than 6g/Wp due to increased efficiencies and thinner wafers. The Energy Payback Time of PV systems is dependent on the geographical location: PV systems in Northern Europe need around 2.5 years to balance the input energy, while PV systems in the South equal their energy input after 1.5 years and less, depending on the technology installed. A PV system located in Sicily with multi-Si modules has an Energy Payback Time of around one year. Assuming 20 years lifespan, this kind of system can produce twenty times the energy needed to produce it. The Energy Payback Time for CPV-Systems in Southern Europe is less than 1 year.
Inverter efficiency for state-of-the-art brand products 98% and higher. The market share of string inverters is estimated to be 37%. These inverters are mostly used in residential, small and medium commercial applications. The market share of central inverters, with applications mostly in large commercial and utility-scale systems, is about 61%. A small proportion of the market (about 2%) belongs to micro-inverters (used on the module level). It is estimated that 1.5 GWp of DC / DC converters, also called "power optimizers", have been installed in 2015. The specific net retail price of all inverters in Germany is about 10 €-cents/Wp. Central inverters tend to be cheaper than string inverters. Trends: New features for grid stabilization and optimization of selfconsumption; storage unit included in the inverter; utilization of innovative semiconductors (SiC or GaN) which allow very high efficiencies and compact designs.
In Germany prices for a typical 10 to 100 kWp PV rooftop-system were around 14,000 €/kWp in 1990. At the end of 2015, such systems cost about 1,270 €/kWp. This is a net-price regression of about 90% over a period of 25 years and is equivalent to an annual compound average price reduction rate of 9%. The Experience Curve – also called Learning Curve - shows that in the last 35 years the module price decreased by about 19% with each doubling of the cumulated module production. Cost reductions result from economies of scale and technological improvements. [back]
Fraunhofer ISE - Photovoltaics Report 2016
European Commission - Intelligent Energy - PV Legal Final Report
European Commission - Intelligent Energy - 1st PV Legal Status Report
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2013
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2012, Part 1
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2011
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2010
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2009
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2008
European Commission - Joint Research Centre - PV Status Report 2007
European Commission - Photovoltaic Solar Energy 2009
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2016
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2015
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2014
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2013
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2012
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2011
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2010
REN21 - Renewables Global Status Report 2009